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Investment Outlook

The economy and markets

Global Investment Committee
Horseshoe Bend on the Colorado River

Section 3

Key points to know

Inflation has clearly peaked.

As backpackers know, the risk of injury is higher when hiking downhill than uphill. The same is true for inflation. Headline year-over-year U.S. consumer price inflation topped out at 9.1% in mid-2022 and has since moderated by almost 6%, to 3.2% in October. Comparable measures in Europe have dropped even faster, from 10.6% last year to 2.4% in the latest print. We always knew that headline prices would slide down from those summits. The question was whether stickier core prices would follow the same trail or take unpleasant detours back uphill.

We are more confident that core inflation is maintaining the downtrend in the U.S. Shelter inflation has decelerated for six straight months, and we anticipate further progress. Wage inflation remains elevated at an annual pace above 5%, but leading indicators point to a slowdown next year toward 4% (Figure 2). Overall, though inflation remains lofty relative to pre-Covid trends, it is set to continue its descent over the coming months and quarters.

Figure 2: Wage inflation is set to decline further

Recession risks remain.

The upshot of the improved inflation outlook is that growth prospects have also deteriorated. U.S. unemployment has ticked up 0.5% from its recent low, and the pace of job creation has slowed from above 300,000 per month at the start of the year to less than 200,000.

Consumption and investment remain strong, but robust demand today may be simply pulling forward activity at the expense of next year’s growth. Consensus estimates for 2023 U.S. GDP growth are up +2.0% from earlier this year, but prospects for 2024 are down -1.4%. With next year’s economic performance looking increasingly tenuous, the risk is elevated for a dip into outright recession. New geopolitical risks could also weigh on activity, from Ukraine to the Middle East to East Asia. Amid this backdrop, we think a mild recession in late 2024 is more likely than not.

Eventually, as growth slows and the labor market continues to weaken later next year, we expect a pivot toward rate cuts in the U.S., likely around mid-year.

Central banks have finished tightening.

Over the last year and a half, major global central banks focused entirely on fighting inflation. The Federal Reserve, European Central Bank and Bank of England have each raised policy rates between 450 and 525 basis points, from near-zero to multidecade highs. With the inflation outlook now significantly improved, we anticipate an end to the overall hiking cycle. A few outliers may emerge, such as high odds of a rate hike from the Bank of Japan and Australia and/or Sweden following suit. 

But for the Fed and most other central banks, attention will now shift. Instead of focusing on “how high” rates need to climb, the question will be “how long” they stay at current levels. With material runway before inflation returns comfortably to the Fed’s 2% target, we think policy rates will remain at current levels for the next several quarters. Eventually, as growth slows and the labor market continues to weaken later next year, we expect a pivot toward rate cuts, likely around mid-year.

What does this mean for rates and markets?

Our macro outlook hinges on three key variables. Inflation has peaked, economic growth will peak soon and central bank policy rates are peaking now. Historically, these dynamics have tended to coincide with a peak in rates broadly, as well as with a re-steepening of the yield curve. We expect Treasury yields to gradually move lower from their current levels over the coming quarters, as high inflation risks ebb, downside growth risks escalate and central banks start to signal eventual rate cuts.

A few variables certainly push against our base case. If growth remains healthy, the Fed may not need to cut rates at all next year, and Treasuries accordingly would not rally. Persistent and outsized fiscal deficits should offset upward pressure on rates. Non-U.S. demand for U.S. fixed income remains pressured by high currency hedging costs. We are cognizant of these risks, but increasingly believe that the case for overweighting fixed income is becoming progressively more persuasive.

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All market and economic data from Bloomberg, FactSet and Morningstar.

The views and opinions expressed are for informational and educational purposes only as of the date of production/writing and may change without notice at any time based on numerous factors, such as market or other conditions, legal and regulatory developments, additional risks and uncertainties and may not come to pass. This material may contain “forward-looking” information that is not purely historical in nature.

Such information may include, among other things, projections, forecasts, estimates of market returns, and proposed or expected portfolio composition. Any changes to assumptions that may have been made in preparing this material could have a material impact on the information presented herein by way of example. Performance data shown represents past performance and does not predict or guarantee future results. Investing involves risk; principal loss is possible.

All information has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, but its accuracy is not guaranteed. There is no representation or warranty as to the current accuracy, reliability or completeness of, nor liability for, decisions based on such information and it should not be relied on as such. For term definitions and index descriptions, please access the glossary on Please note, it is not possible to invest directly in an index.

Important information on risk
All investments carry a certain degree of risk and there is no assurance that an investment will provide positive performance over any period of time. Equity investing involves risk. Investments are also subject to political, currency and regulatory risks. These risks may be magnified in emerging markets. Diversification is a technique to help reduce risk. There is no guarantee that diversification will protect against a loss of income. Investing in municipal bonds involves risks such as interest rate risk, credit risk and market risk, including the possible loss of principal. The value of the portfolio will fluctuate based on the value of the underlying securities. There are special risks associated with investments in high yield bonds, hedging activities and the potential use of leverage. Portfolios that include lower rated municipal bonds, commonly referred to as “high yield” or “junk” bonds, which are considered to be speculative, the credit and investment risk is heightened for the portfolio. Credit ratings are subject to change. AAA, AA, A, and BBB are investment grade ratings; BB, B, CCC/CC/C and D are below-investment grade ratings. As an asset class, real assets are less developed, more illiquid, and less transparent compared to traditional asset classes. Investments will be subject to risks generally associated with the ownership of real estate-related assets and foreign investing, including changes in economic conditions, currency values, environmental risks, the cost of and ability to obtain insurance, and risks related to leasing of properties. Investors should be aware that alternative investments including private equity and private debt are speculative, subject to substantial risks including the risks associated with limited liquidity, the use of leverage, short sales and concentrated investments and may involve complex tax structures and investment strategies. Alternative investments may be illiquid, there may be no liquid secondary market or ready purchasers for such securities, they may not be required to provide periodic pricing or valuation information to investors, there may be delays in distributing tax information to investors, they are not subject to the same regulatory requirements as other types of pooled investment vehicles, and they may be subject to high fees and expenses, which will reduce profits. Alternative investments are not appropriate for all investors and should not constitute an entire investment program. Investors may lose all or substantially all of the capital invested. The historical returns achieved by alternative asset vehicles is not a prediction of future performance or a guarantee of future results, and there can be no assurance that comparable returns will be achieved by any strategy. Impact investing and/or Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) managers may take into consideration factors beyond traditional financial information to select securities, which could result in relative investment performance deviating from other strategies or broad market benchmarks, depending on whether such sectors or investments are in or out of favor in the market.

Nuveen, LLC provides investment services through its investment specialists.

This information does not constitute investment research as defined under MiFID.

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